However Salomon argued that social work is not the same as social politics. Politics is one way to change injustice; social work is another. Unlike her socialist friends who believed socialism would make social work superfluous, Salomon was convinced that many problems that do not depend on material circumstances will always remain: for example orphans, old age, illness, personal problems, etc.
Social work on the other hand is much more than the carrying out of new welfare laws; it should act as a motor for social development and adapt welfare to changing needs. In all her writings Salomon had a special perspective on women: mothers, girls, widows, working women. Working women suffered, according to Salomon, double oppression both from their employers and from their husbands. For her the capability of giving birth was the main difference between men and women. This put working women at a disadvantage in the labour market.
They are on the one hand not able sell their whole working time and on the other hand they have either to serve their husbands at home or to earn money for their children too as a single mother, widow or wife of a husband with low wages.
This is the reason until today why poverty worldwide is mainly a female problem. Contraception was almost unknown and wives were not allowed to say no to their conjugal duties even if they had already many children. This was one mostly unspoken factor of the high rate of infant mortality. Unlike today, motherhood was not only a separate period in life, but many women were constantly either pregnant or nursing babies.
Most wages of working class husbands did not allow the wives to leave their work for a long time. After working 11 hours women of the working class were additionally obliged to do housework. Some husbands left their families without getting divorced officially because it was too expensive or spent their wages only on themselves. The records of public and private charity organisation contained thousands of such cases Salomon , To give another example: a mother was convicted for manslaughter through culpable negligence because one of her children fell into a wash-tub and drowned during her absence.
The mother claimed innocence because she had to work to feed her children. Salomon defended her in an article: the alternative would have been to starve. According to Salomon, it was also the responsibility of women of the propertied classes to support women of the non-propertied classes and thus work for the reconciliation of the classes.
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But this often criticised concept see for example Simmel was not grounded in biology: Salomon argued that women live in a milieu of care and education because society expects them to bring up the children. But society suffers, argues Salomon, if the logic of care is only delegated into the private sector. She demanded a maternal politics comparable with the concept of Sarah Ruddick that is based on the mothering life practice of women.
It turns the private work of women into the public and makes it visible. As Salomon had found in her doctoral thesis female labour mostly suffered from being not a real profession with formal education.
So she tried to organise good schools for women who wanted to do social work and demanded even a salary for field work during the studies. Nevertheless she was convinced that social work by volunteers should always be an integral part of this field and that also volunteers should have the right to being educated in social work. It would be too expensive, too bureaucratic and formalized to meet all social needs of a society without volunteers. In capitalist societies volunteer social activities are able to mediate between classes.
Volunteers are more likely to criticise the status quo than public employees. Volunteers have a rich background of different professions and gifts which bring new perspectives into social work Salomon , 42ff. Volunteering — so the conclusion of Salomon — is not a primitive phase of social work that has to be overcome but represents the social conscience of civil society and an additional form of social work. Many social workers could improve their work if they would encourage and educate volunteers.
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The danger is, however, the abuse of volunteer work as a substitution of professional work. The main difference between professionals and volunteers is, next to the knowledge about laws and society, the qualification in methods. The strength of social work is, other than in other helping professions like law and medicine, a perspective that sees persons in their entirety Salomon , 9. Salomon distinguished material and personal areas of responsibility. Material tasks in social work are:.
The finding and arranging of money, housing, education, special institutions or organisations;. The arrangement of the social environment: adapting the external circumstances to the needs of the client. Salomon was aware of the fact that point three is sometimes impossible for social work. For example, what can social work do if there are no jobs or no cheap flats? But she was also convinced that there is always something to start with, because she believed that even though the social context produces many disadvantages people are not only the product of their surroundings but also free and responsible for their lives.
Therefore the personal tasks are also very important in social work:. Empathy: nobody will share their problems with a person they do not trust. To inspire confidence you need to initiate a process of visiting and advising and the gift of compassion. Professional Distance: there is a limit to compassion. Social workers always deal with the shadow-side of society and therefore they have the duty to care also for themselves to save their capacity for work Salomon suggested a sabbatical break.
Above all social work should support clients in dealing with life-crises: for example suddenly being a widow, becoming a mother, having moved house and so on. A precondition for professional social work is the social diagnosis, a representative interpretation of the external and internal life circumstances of the clients. Nevertheless there is the duty of distinguishing between facts, statements by neighbours, opinions, circumstantial evidence and so on.
Social workers have to be educated in recognizing their own prejudice and bias and in dealing with them Salomon a, 16f. In contrast to those sciences which have the task to describe or to analyse like philosophy or sociology Social Work as a Science is obliged to think about action. The science of social work should use all disciplines from medicine, psychology, pedagogy to social and political science, if these disciplines can help solve social problems. Maybe sociology and pedagogy are more important than others, but the only hierarchy Salomon would have accepted was the pre-eminence of ethics — according to her statement that in the 20 th century it is no longer possible to do social work only with the heart, but also not without it.
Salomon was convinced that modern science had already gathered a great deal of knowledge about the reasons of poverty, illness and injustice, but that there was an increasing gap between knowledge and action, between scientific and personal responsibility. Knowing more, she states, does not lead automatically to better action. Salomon said that it is not only important what you know, but to what use you put your knowledge. She criticised Germany which, though leading in medical science, nevertheless has one of the highest rates of infant mortality Salomon b undc.
Social work education should therefore always attend to ethical questions behind neutral scientific subjects, because one cannot find scientific but only ethical reasons against social injustice she refers to the dispute about Darwin, Malthus and Kropotkin, see Kropotkin But social work is not only a practical but also an intellectual profession: social workers have to decide and their decisions may have serious consequences for the lives of their clients.
Therefore social work education cannot be only in-service training. Although Salomon emphasised and integrated a weekly four-hour field work period in her curriculum, social science and formal knowledge was the basis at her school in Berlin. Above all social workers should be educated in economics to understand the economic background of social problems Salomon , And last but not least, social work education should produce a special professional ethics with three main demands:. Do not abuse the power you have over your clients, but also use your chance to influence them to improve their situation.
Social Workers are not allowed to influence their clients to achieve external aims, but only to achieve the personal aims of the client. In social work you will always find a non-transparent mixture between destiny, guilt and needs Salomon b, Social work education should foster an awareness for these interchanges. Every student should know about other countries and should be able to compare the national development with the international.
From the very beginning Salomon herself was very well informed about developments and debates in other countries. Being an active member of the International Council of Women she learned to use the experiences of the social movements in other countries for national progress in social reform. Oppression of women was an international phenomenon, therefore the struggle against it should also use international cooperation.
The economy started to organize in an international context and so social work should do likewise. Social injustice was and still is a consequence of an unjust economic system that operates worldwide.
During the short period of growing international cooperation between and she became a leading person in the emerging process of international cooperation of social work and social work education. Download Are We Alone? Download Can You Feel the Silence? Download Cheiro's book of numbers PDF. Download Fully Booked! Download La Basilica di Aquileia. Download Secondary vocational education curriculum reform of national planning of new materials supporting teaching book : Mathematics Learning and Training basic module Vol.
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